Overview, Counseling & Conceptual Models


Ciasullo, E. C. & Escovitz, K. (2005). Positive futures: The need for paradigm shift in HIV/AIDS services. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 22, 125-128.

This manuscript describes the need for a paradigm shift within HIV/AIDS services. The authors argue for the need to place greater emphasis on helping people with HIV/AIDS plan for a positive future, including the opportunity to develop skills, engage in productive activities, and improve their economic well-being.


Conyers, L. M. (2008). HIV/AIDS and employment research: A need for an integrative approach. The Counseling Psychologist, 36.

This article provides a reflection on the three manuscripts that compose this major contribution on HIV/AIDS and employment research. The author highlights the merits of this major contribution in the broader context of HIV/AIDS employment research and highlights future directions for this area of inquiry including (a) moving toward theory integration, (b) including investigation of HIV health outcomes, and (c) taking an interdisciplinary approach to this complex line of research.


Conyers, L. M. (2005). HIV/AIDS as an emergent disability: The response of vocational rehabilitation. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 22 , 67-73.

This manuscript describes the formation of the National Working Positive Coalition and provides a review of the emerging field of HIV/AIDS and employment research. A concise summary of each manuscript in the special issue is also provided.


Conyers, L. M. (2004). Expanding understanding of HIV/AIDS and employment: Perspectives from focus groups. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 48 (1), 5- 18.

The employment-related issues and concerns of 46 individuals with HIV/AIDS diagnoses were explored using grounded theory methods. Participants, who ranged in age from 22 to 58, represented diverse ethnic backgrounds reflective of the emerging demographics of HIV and were at various stages of the employment process. The key categories that emerged from the data fell into three main areas: (a) impact of HIV/AIDS, (b) motivation to work, and (c) barriers to employment. The data analysis led to the expansion of the 5 construct 6 process ecological model (szymanski & Hershenson, 1998) by placing greater emphasis on the role of mediating factors in understanding the employment related issues and concerns of people with HIV and in expanding the interpretation of the developmental process as it relates to emergent disability. Use of an ecological approach to rehabilitation planning is recommended.


Doughty-Berry, J., & Hunt, B. (2005). HIV/AIDS 101: A primer for vocational rehabilitation counselors. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 22 , 75-83.

This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the most current medical, psychosocial, and vocational information on HIV/AIDS as it relates to vocational rehabilitation. Counseling strategies and suggestions are given for vocational rehabilitation professionals to use when working with this population.


Goldblum, P., & Kohlenberg, B. (2005). Vocational counseling for people with HIV: The client-focused considering work model. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 22, 115-124.

This article discusses the factors that impact many people with HIV who face new decisions regarding work as a result of the increased efficacy of HIV antiviral medications and subsequent improvement in health status. The Client-Focused Model of Considering Work describes the interplay between four domains of influence (medical, financial/legal, psychosocial, and vocational). In each of these domains, persons with HIV can experience both pressures to make work-related changes and barriers to making these changes. A nonlinear decision-making process is articulated in four phases. The authors discuss and contrast this model with other rehabilitation models, describe its implications for planning and delivery of rehabilitation services, and cite research results from a career counseling program based on the model.